Engineers Develop Solar Probe Plus

Extreme solar storm, solar flares
Extreme solar storm, solar flares

Solar Probe Plus will be an extraordinary and historic mission. Exploring what is arguably the last region of the solar system, visited by a spacecraft. The Sun’s outer atmosphere or corona as it extends out into space. Solar Probe Plus will repeatedly sample the near-Sun environment. Revolutionizing our knowledge, understanding of coronal heating and of the origin and evolution of the solar wind. This will answer critical questions in heliophysics that have been ranked as top priorities for decades. Moreover, by making direct, in-situ measurement of the region where some of the most hazardous solar energetic particles are energized. Solar Probe Plus will make a fundamental contribution. Our ability to characterize and forecast the radiation environment, in which future space explorers will work and live. https://glewengineering.com/optomechanical-engineering-considerations-for-space-instruments/

First Visit To a Star

Two of the transformative advances in our understanding of the Sun and influence on the solar system. Discovery that the corona , which is several hundreds of times hotter than the visible solar surface (the photosphere) . The development and observational confirmation theory of the corona’s supersonic expansion into interplanetary space as a “solar wind.” https://glewengineering.com/engineers-predict-evolution-of-stars-by-hipercam/

Engineers Followed Milestones In Solar and Space Physics.

In the decades that have followed these important milestones in solar and space physics. Composition, properties, and structure of the solar wind have been extensively measured. High heliolatitudes as well as in the ecliptic and at distances far beyond the orbit of Pluto. The corona and the transition region above the photosphere have been imaged with unprecedentedly high resolution. Revealing a complex architecture of loops and arcades. While, Photospheric magnetography has uncovered the “magnetic carpet” of fine-scale flux bundles that is underlying. Observational, advances have been accompanied by advances in theory and modeling. Notwithstanding, a broad range of models offering plausible and competing scenarios, explaining coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. https://glewengineering.com/engineers-design-airports-of-the-future/

Corona and the Solar Wind

In the end, more is known of the corona and the solar wind than ever. Yet the two fundamental questions raised in the 1940s, by the discovery of the corona’s million-degree temperature. Equally, early 1960s proof of the supersonic solar wind’s existence, remain unanswered. Why is the solar corona so much hotter than the photosphere? How is the solar wind accelerated?https://www.space.com/22215-solar-wind.html

Answers to Questions

As a matter of fact, answers to these questions can be obtained only through in-situ measurements of the solar wind down in the corona. A mission to provide these measurements, to probe the near-Sun particles-and fields environment. First recommended in 1958, at the dawn of the space age, by the National Academy of Science’s “Simpson Committee.” NASA has since, conducted several studies of possible implementations of a Solar Probe mission. A Solar Probe has remained, at the top of various National Academy and NASA science priority lists.

Engineers Predict Evolution of Stars by HiPERCAM

Engineering Scientists have been working with HiPERCAM. HiPERCAM is a high-speed, multicolor camera, which can take more than 1,000 images per second, Engineers Predict Evolution of Stars . Thus, allowing experts to measure both the mass and the radius of a cool subdwarf star for the first time.

Engineers Study Structural Model

Finds have allowed engineering researchers to verify the commonly used stellar structure model. Which describes the internal structure of a star in detail. Making detailed predictions about the brightness, the color and its future evolution. https://glewengineering.com/nand-flash-11-myths-still-floating-around/

What Engineers Know

Engineering Scientists know that old stars have fewer metals than young stars. But the effects of this on the structure of stars was, until now, untested. Old stars (often referred to as cool subdwarf stars) are faint, there are few in the solar neighborhood. Up until now scientists have not had a HiPERCAM a High-Speed camera powerful enough to be able to get precise measurements. The mass and radius as well as the stellar parameters can then be measured. https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/physics/research/astro/people/marsh/hipercam/

HiPERCAM Simply Amazing

HiPERCAM can take one picture every millisecond. As opposed to a normal camera on a large telescope, capturing only one picture every few minutes. This has given scientists the ability to measure the star accurately for the first time. The researchers have been able to measure the size of the star to confirm it is in line with stellar structure theory. They say that these results would not have been possible with any other telescope. They have not only proved the stellar structure theory, but have also verified the potential of HiPERCAM. https://glewengineering.com/series-on-semiconductor-processing-and-integrated-circuits-part-6-multilayer-photoresist-processing/

Engineers Study Dead Stars

HiPERCAM is mounted on the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The world’s largest optical telescope, with a 10.4-meter mirror diameter, can predict age of stars in space . The camera can take high-speed images of objects in the universe, allowing their rapid brightness variations, Engineers Predict Evolution of Stars . Due to phenomena such as eclipses and explosions to be studied in unprecedented detail. Data captured by the camera, taken in five different colors simultaneously, allow scientists to study the remnants of dead stars. Such as white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. The GTC is based on the island of La Palma, situated 2,500 meters above sea level, which is one of the best places in the world to study the night sky. https://glewengineering.com/taking-control-of-the-van-allen-belts-to-improve-safety-in-space/

Engineers Develop Power Generating Shoes

Engineers say, when you’re on the go and your smartphone battery is low, just wait.  In the not-so-distant future you could charge your phone.  Uniquely, by simply plugging it into your power generating shoes for energy optimization.

An innovative energy harvesting and storage technology developed by University of Wisconsin-Madison mechanical engineers.  Comparatively, this product would reduce our reliance on the batteries in our mobile devices. Thus, ensuring we have power for our devices no matter where we are. Power generating shoes are just a start.

Engineers Capture the Motion Energy Walking

Energy Optimization will take  technology could enable a footwear-embedded energy harvester. Capturing energy produced by humans during walking, thus, storing it for later use. Engineers could develop power generating shoes.

Power-generating shoes could be especially useful for the military.  Soldiers currently carry heavy batteries to power their radios, GPS units and night-vision goggles in the field. Similarly, this advance could provide a source of power to people in remote areas and developing countries that lack adequate electrical power grids.

Engineers say human walking carries a lot of energy.  Theoretical estimates show that it can produce up to 10 watts per shoe, that energy is just wasted as heat. A total of 20 watts from walking is not a small thing.  Compared to the power requirements of the majority of modern mobile devices.

Engineers say tapping into just a small amount of that energy is enough to power a wide range of mobile devices, in the power generating shoes.  Together with, Smartphones, tablets, laptop computers and flashlights. For example, a typical smartphone requires less than two watts.

Engineers Convert Motion to Energy

However, traditional approaches to energy harvesting and conversion don’t work well for the relatively small displacements.  Large forces of “footfalls”, according to the researchers.   https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-30816255

Engineers have been developing new methods of directly converting mechanical motion into electrical energy.  Also, appropriate for this type of application for the power generating shoe.

The Engineers new energy-harvesting technology takes advantage of  reverse electrowetting.  A phenomenon pioneered 2011. With this approach, as a conductive liquid interacts with a nanofilm-coated surface  Mechanical energy is directly converted into electrical energy.  https://glewengineering.com/engineers-develop-awesome-ways-drones-can-be-used/

Engineers Develop Electrowetting Power Method

The reverse electrowetting method can generate usable power.  It does require an energy source with a reasonably high frequency.  Such as a mechanical source that’s vibrating or rotating quickly.

Our environment is full of low-frequency mechanical energy sources such as human and machine motion, and our goal is to be able to draw energy from these types of low-frequency energy sources. Reverse electrowetting by itself didn’t solve one of the problems they had. To overcome this, the researchers developed what they call the “bubbler” method.   The bubbler method combines reverse electrowetting with bubble growth and collapse.

The Engineers bubbler device, which contains no moving mechanical parts. Consisting of two flat plates separated by a small gap filled with a conductive liquid. A bottom plate is covered with tiny holes through which pressurized gas forms bubbles. The bubbles grow until they’re large enough to touch the top plate, which causes the bubble to collapse. The speedy, repetitive growth and collapse of bubbles pushes the conductive fluid back and forth, generating electrical charge.    https://glewengineering.com/engineers-design-airports-of-the-future/

High frequency that you need for efficient energy conversion isn’t coming from your mechanical energy source but instead, it’s an internal property of this bubbler approach.

Engineers Develop Bubbler Energy Method

Engineers say their bubbler method can potentially generate high power densities to power generating shoes. Lots of watts relative to surface area in the generator. Which enables smaller and lighter energy-harvesting devices.  Conversely coupled to a broad range of energy sources. The proof-of-concept bubbler device generated around 10 watts per square meter in preliminary experiments.  Theoretical estimates show that up to 10 kilowatts per square meter might be possible.

The bubbler method really shines at producing high power densities.  Ultimately, for this type of mechanical energy harvesting, the bubbler has a promise to achieve by far the highest power density ever demonstrated.

Engineers Say Motion Integrated

Again,  Engineers could directly power various mobile devices through a charging cable.   Moreover, abroad range of electronic devices could be integrated. Embedded in a shoe, such as a Wi-Fi hot spot that acts as a “middleman” between mobile devices and a wireless network. The latter, requires no cables, dramatically cuts the power requirements of wireless mobile devices.  This can make a cellphone battery last 10 times longer between charges.https://glewengineering.com/technology-advanced-driver-assistance-systems/

Ultimately,  just the energy cost of radio-frequency transmission back and forth between the phone and the tower is a tremendous contributor to total drain of the battery.  Engineers are always developing new ways to make a better world.

Technology in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

Technology
ADAS – Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

 

What Will Transportation  Look Like in the World of Tomorrow? 

Technology: What do Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) seek to do? In the first place, automate, adapt and enhance vehicle systems for safer and better driving. Additionally, these automotive safety features are designed to avoid collisions and accidents.  First,  by offering technologies that alert the driver to potential problems.   Secondly, avoiding collisions by implementing safeguards and taking over control of the vehicle.  Thirdly, adaptive features can automate lighting, provide adaptive cruise control.  Additionally, collision avoidance, incorporate satnav/traffic warnings. Connect to smartphones, alert drivers to other cars or dangers. Additionally, single lane departure warnings and much more.   https://glewengineering.com/up-and-coming-hydrogen-fuel-cells/

Technology Aftermarket

Technology can offer a wide range of built-in and aftermarket ADAS possibilities.  Therefore,  an equally broad range of technologies required to put these systems in our vehicles.  Again, ADAS rely on inputs from multiple data sources. Including,  automotive imaging, LiDAR, radar, image processing, computer vision and in-car networking. Additionally,  inputs are also possible from other sources separate from the primary vehicle platform, such as other vehicles, referred to as vehicle-to vehicle (V2V) or vehicle- to infrastructure (such as mobile telephone or Wi-Fi data network) systems.   https://glewengineering.com/engineers-develop-top-trends-in-vehicle-safety-features-for-2019/

In order,  to change such a vast industry in such a short time Engineers need an end-to-end partner who has the resources and networks necessary.  Again, bringing about incredible innovation in car technology Engineers can make use of technical know how . In the same fashion, Engineers can help you manifest your vision for the future of transportation. https://www.consumerreports.org/cro/2012/04/guide-to-safety-features/index.htm

ADAS  Developments 

Developments in the past years are:

  • May 2018 Technology in All New Vehicles are required rear view cameras. 
  • GM offers vibrating smart warning in Cadillac’s staring with the 2013 Cadillac ATS.  Also, if a driver begins drifting out of his lane the seat vibrates. 
  • Alcohol ignition interlock devices, furthermore, do not allow the driver to start the car if the breath alcohol level is above a prescribed amount. 
  • September 2016 the Federal Automated Vehicles Policy, in addition,  which describes the U.S. Department of Transportation’s policies,  related to Highly Automated Vehicles (HAV).  As well as,  range from vehicles with advanced driver-assistance systems features. 

 

 

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Engineers Help Save Endangered Species

Engineers help save endangered species. What does it mean for a species to become extinct? Subsequently, it means that those plants or animal have completely died out, therefore, no longer exist on Earth. Science claims species are going extinct daily, by the hundreds. As a result the Rainforest alone, it’s estimated there are about 50,000 species becoming extinct each year. Should we care abut extinction? 

Engineers Assist in Prevention 

How can we prevent it?  In the event Engineers can put a stop to the destruction of natural habitats, will go a long ways towards avoiding species extinction. Habitats will be threatened in a number of ways. Rain-forests can be destroyed by clear cutting,  mass cut of trees in a large area of forest. Notably,  coral reefs and polar ice caps two habitats threatened by rising temperatures.  In-addition to other effects due to global warming the world is heating up fast.  https://glewengineering.com/engineers-develop-drones-to-protect-elephants-from-poachers/

Notably, what are engineers doing to save natural habitats and prevent extinction? Importantly, as part of the design process, engineers listen to environmental scientists to gather information.  Together this information is helping them design and gather products to fight extinction. For example, some scientific studies have shown that greenhouse gas emissions have contributed to global warming.  Which in turn, could endanger some plants and animals. This scientific evidence, engineers can design products (like cars) that reduce harmful emissions.   Engineers create both direct and indirect solutions to prevent extinction.  Materials engineers are developing long-term alternatives to wood.  Architectural engineers are making buildings more energy efficient.  Mechanical and chemical engineers are producing clean energy.  Lastly, civil and other engineers are working to save coral reefs.    https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/directory

Techniques Engineers Develop

Techniques developed by Engineers and intended to reduce strain on the biosphere in one area,  have unintended detrimental effects on another area. One example begins with,  the development of pesticides.  By using pesticides, farmers were able to drastically reduce the loss of crops due to insect destruction. Significantly, improved crop yields and reducing the required size of farm land.  Limiting farm expansion into deep wilderness.  However, overuse of pesticides attributed to colony collapse disorder (CCD) in bees.  Bees primarily responsible for pollinating many of our crops, upping crop yield. This example shows,  clearly that there are competing factors in ecological conservation. All aspects need balancing to produce the best possible results.

Engineers: All Disciplines 

Equally, engineers of many types, create products that help save plants and animals. Take note, material engineers develop new building supplies that mimic wood in function (such as structural support),  to way it looks and cost.  Need for actual timber from rain-forests will diminish. This can reduce the harmful practice of clear cutting rain-forest timber, destroying precious habitat for many plants and animals.  Engineers are working saving coral reefs, diverse animal and plant life that depend on them. Coral reefs are destroyed in a number of subsequent ways. Pesticides and nutrient runoff encourages growth of algae smothering coral, needing sunlight to survive.  Industrial toxins dumped into the ocean,  poison coral, resulting in death.  Careless construction, logging and farming lead to erosion,  smothering and killing coral. https://glewengineering.com/engineers-tackle-elephant-identification-software/

Not to mention, Civil and Agricultural engineers play a role  assisting and  preventing of coral death.  Encouraging better farming practices, reducing pesticide runoff and control erosion.  Also, Environmental engineers can develop a more responsible handling industrial waste. Coral reefs threatened by an overpopulation of starfish, which feed on coral,  overwhelming their own food source. Chemical engineers in Japan have isolated a chemical produced by sea urchins attracting starfish. Subsequently, using this chemical,   starfish are attracted away from the coral,  relocating in other areas of the ocean.

Engineers Preserve Habitat

Engineers are indirectly assist and preserve  habitats through combating global warming. The phenomenon of global warming may be alleviated as engineers develop new methods, helping our society use less energy (gas and electrical).  Using more clean energy,  produced in a way that does not contribute to global warming, such as wind, solar, and biomass. Engineers do not necessarily have coral reef or the rain-forest in mind when they are doing this work.  Nonetheless,  these bio-diverse habitats benefit from lack of human intervention,  ensuing stability in their habitats.

Summary

Generally speaking, species extinction is happening at an alarming rate.   Given these points, ethical and aesthetic reasons, we need to prevent endangered plants, animals and insects from disappearing. Therefore, Engineers from a wide variety of disciplines work hard developing products. Protecting the habitats where those endangered species live, so we may live a better life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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