Material Scientist Ponder What to Do With Used EV Batteries As electric vehicles become mainstream, mechanical engineers and chemical engineers are trying to address the big environmental question: what do we do with the used lithium-ion batteries? The batteries used in electric cars are physically large, last 8 to 10 years, and will account for 90 per cent of the lithium-ion battery market by 2025. This will increase lithium demand fourfold, and more than double the demand for cobalt — two of their essential elements. The price of cobalt has already risen by more than 80 per cent in 2018. Most expert Material Scientists agree that a replacement hybrid car battery can range from $1,000 to more than $6,000. The [...]
Semiconductor Worldwide: Samsung Takes Over GalleryDesign, Electrical Engineering, Energy Efficiency, Engineering Consulting, Finite Element Analysis, Heat transfer, Holiday, Licensed Mechanical Engineer, Mechanical Engineers, Semiconductor, Thermal Management, Uncategorized
Samsung topples Intel as top dog semiconductor market share Gartner beancounters say price rises driven by memory shortages propelled Samsung into the lead based on semiconductor vendor revenue, vaulting past Intel and its CPUs. The largest memory supplier, Samsung Electronics, gained the most semiconductor market share and took the No. 1 position from Intel – the first time Intel has been toppled since 1992. Memory accounted for more than two-thirds of all semiconductor revenue growth in 2017, and became the largest semiconductor category. DRAM prices rose 44 per cent from 2016 to 2017, and NAND flash prices went up 17 per cent year-over-year for the first time. (See Figure Below) A Gartner table provides the numeric nitty-gritty [...]
IC thermal management introduction. This relates to the heat transfer problems encountered by an electrical engineer in semiconductor design.
Figure 1: Composite layered heater from patent US 9,224,626 B2 Alexander Glew, Ph.D., P.E. recently contributed to a new patent on an advanced thin-film electric heaters, layered composite heaters, for CVD semiconductor processing and related technologies titled “Composite substrate for layered heaters”. Watlow Electric, based in St. Louis, hired Glew Engineering and Dr. Glew to help develop this heater technology due to his experience in the Silicon Valley’s semiconductor industry. As a semiconductor equipment expert and materials engineering consultant, Dr. Glew’s familiarity with semiconductor manufacturing meant he understood both the limitations of common semiconductor chuck heating methods and the techniques that could be used to construct a better heater. In this post, we review how this composite heater capitalizes on semiconductor [...]
Conduction and Radiation of Thermal Energy In my last blog post, I wrote about the conduction and radiation of thermal energy through windows and the thermal transmittance value, called the U-Factor, that characterizes that heat transfer. The U-factor is useful in evaluating window performance and making wise decisions when specifying components for a building, but it is only one piece of the puzzle. The National Fenestration Research Council (NFRC) mandates a second value alongside U-factor in its certification process, called the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). SHGC represents the ability of a window to resist heat gain from radiation, like the sunlight in Figure 1. This is obviously a challenge, given that the entire point [...]
Figure 1: Windows catching sunlight By Magda S [FreeImages.com Content License] In our last blog post, I wrote about the thermal resistance (R-value) and transmittance (U-factor) of insulation and windows. The R-value represents how well a material prevents heat transfer through its thickness, and U-factor is its inverse, representing how much heat a material will conduct through. These values are fairly simple to calculate for most building materials materials like the bricks and panels in Figure 1, as they primarily experience only conductive heat transfer. Windows are a more challenging proposition, however, since the heat transfer through them includes radiation across the entire spectrum, not just the visible light we see and the infrared we feel. In addition, [...]
Figure 1: FLIR image of two houses showing energy loss. Colors towards red on the scale indicate warmer surfaces and more energy loss. The basic principle behind thermal insulation is simple to understand. The harder it is for heat to travel through a material, the better insulator that material will make. In this blog, I’m going to take a look at how that effectiveness is quantified, after a brief review of the three methods of heat transfer. The building and construction industry use a ratio called the R-factor to indicate how well a building material can insulate a space. Also called the thermal insulance or thermal resistance, a higher R-value indicates a more effective insulator. Heat Transfer Methods There are [...]
Figure 1: Simplified model of an aluminum-glass window In last week’s blog, Thermal Expansion in a Glass and Aluminum Window: Part 1, we introduced the basic concept of thermal expansion in solid materials. Since CTE mismatch can impose extremely high stress, during mechanical engineering design one must consider the temperature exposure and expansion or contraction of a material. In order to help the read gain insight, we used a simplified aluminum-framed window to demonstrate that a hot summer day would be enough to shatter glass if the window wasn’t equipped with a flexible gasket between the frame and the glass. For this entry, we utilize a finite element analysis (FEA) to elucidate the stress effects caused by both high and [...]
12 Years a Martian: Engineering Challenges on the Red Planet GalleryCAD, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Consulting, Expert Witness, Licensed Mechanical Engineer, Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Consulting, Thermal Management
Figure 1: Mars Exploration Rover By NASA/JPL/Cornell University, Maas Digital LLC [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Depending on which Facebook pages or Twitter feeds you follow, some of you may have caught wind that Opportunity (Mars Exploration Rover B, Figure 1) recently passed its twelfth anniversary of its landing on the red planet. Opportunity’s ongoing trek across Mars represents a fantastic accomplishment in engineering. At the time I’m writing this, the rover has been in continual operation for over 4,300 Earth days (that’s about 4,185 Sols, or Martian days). Considering its original planned mission time of 92 Earth days, Opportunity has exceeded its design lifetime by 4,700%. Imagine having a car that, instead of a [...]
Professor Avram Bar-Cohen, 2014 IEEE CPMT Field Award Winner, is leader in heat sink, heat transfer, and thermal management.
‘Green Light’ in Greenland Lends Hope For Rare Earth Mining GalleryExpert Witness, Finite Element Analysis, Licensed Mechanical Engineer, Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineers, Safety, Semiconductor, Thermal Management
A discussion over the mining availabilityof rare earth elements in Greenland and what it means to the semiconductor and engineering industries
Engineering designs and materials for roofing that work like a heat sink and help with the thermal management within a structure.
The engineering advantages and disadvantages to using steel studs vs wood studs in residential construction.
Engineering Environmentally Friendly Materials: Concrete GalleryEnergy Efficiency, Engineering Consulting, Expert Witness, Licensed Mechanical Engineer, Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Consulting, Thermal Management
We look at engineering materials to replace concrete while keeping the thermal properties and thermal management of the substance.
A discussion on the thermal properties and engineering advances in the use of PEX pipe for thermal management in plumbing applications.
Further exploring heat transfer and thermal management that occurs in your average kitchen.
Research into the thermal management and thermal analysis of tankless water heaters.
The study of thermal management and heat transfer as they take place in a commercial refrigerator.